Visual Pathways

0. Introduction
1. Photoreceptor Signals
2. Retinal Ganglion Cells

The retinal ganglion cells represent the output of the retina. They exhibit several important properties that are characteristic of many visual neurons. Begin by reviewing the basic anatomy of a neuron: cell body ("soma"), dendrites (which receive inputs from other cells), and the axon (which sends outputs to other cells).


Interlude. The Representation of the Visual Field in the Brain.
Interlude. Spatial Organization in the Brain

The spatial organization of the brain often provides hints about what the brain does to transform sensory input to useful information for the guidance of action and thought. Spatial organization can be seen at many different levels:


5. Primary Visual Cortex: V1
Interlude. Defining and Separating Different Brain Areas

Brain areas can be differentiated according to 4 main criteria:

 

Remember 'FACT' as a mnemonic. 
6. Secondary Visual Areas

There are approximately 30 visual areas after V1. The functional specialization hypothesis drives much of the research about these areas. Some areas seem specialized for processing a certain aspect of visual information. E.g., MT - motion, V4 - color (?).